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Advances in friction stir spot welding
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences  (IF11.178),  Pub Date : 2019-10-09, DOI: 10.1080/10408436.2019.1671799
Zhikang Shen, Yuquan Ding, Adrian P. Gerlich

Abstract Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a variation of linear Friction Stir Welding (FSW), which was invented to compete with resistance spot welding (RSW) and riveting of lightweight alloys in the automobile, shipbuilding and aerospace industries. Recently, the application of FSSW has rapidly extended to a variety of metals and nonmetals. This article provides a comprehensive review of the recent progress on the process fundamentals, parameters optimization, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties, and relevant simulation and modeling of FSSW. The article also evaluates the energy generation, temperature distribution, plastic flow and joining mechanisms. The optimizations of tool design and welding parameters are obtained through experiments and modeling. Furthermore, a particular emphasis is given to microstructural characterization of the recovery, recrystallization and grain growth, and related annealing phenomena after in the welded alloys. The mechanisms of defect formation and liquidation cracking are discussed in detail. The mechanical properties, including hardness, static strength, fatigue performance and failure mechanisms and the relationship between mechanical properties and microstructures are also addressed along with residual stress and corrosion behavior.