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Equity in online learning
Educational Psychologist  (IF8.209),  Pub Date : 2022-06-10, DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2022.2062597
Tamara Tate, Mark Warschauer


Online learning outcomes have indicated both a gap between online and face-to-face learning and the amplification of this gap for low-income and minority learners. Evidence from studies across K–16 reveals equity issues regarding access to online courses; student attendance and achievement; and, most recently, the impact of the pandemic. This article uses Warschauer’s conceptual framework of resources that shape digital inclusion—physical, human, and social—to conceptualize the equity concerns that arose during the pandemic-induced shift to emergency distance learning. This framework reveals equity issues across all three areas from abruptly moving millions into online learning environments without: requisite access to up-to-date computers and broadband internet access, the skills needed to succeed in less structured online classes, or teachers trained to effectively conduct classes online. Finally, we leverage Warschauer’s framework to discuss ways to address these concerns and increase equity in online learning, as well as directions for research.