The growing shift toward online learning has brought new expectations for teachers, including skills needed to combine content knowledge with engaging pedagogical strategies that leverage the affordances of technology. As a result, online pedagogy has become increasingly relevant in modern-day schools. The challenge is understanding the nature of online pedagogy, the skills needed for teachers to succeed in online settings, and the theoretical underpinnings surrounding why these skills are essential. This article unpacks the foundational components of online pedagogy, comprised of five pillars grounded in the principles of learner-centeredness, constructivism, and situated learning. These pillars include the ability to (a) Build Relationships and Community, (b) Incorporate Active Learning, (c) Leverage Learner Agency, (d) Embrace Mastery Learning, and (e) Personalize the Learning Process. We describe their theoretical underpinnings, discuss related literature, and consider implications for teacher education with subsequent implications for scholarship across educational technology, educational psychology, and the learning sciences.