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Effect of live yeast supplementation in sow diet during gestation and lactation on sow and piglet fecal microbiota, health and performance
Journal of Animal Science  (IF3.338),  Pub Date : 2022-06-08, DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac209
Nathalie Le Floc'h, Caroline Stéphanie Achard, Francis Amann Eugenio, Emmanuelle Apper, Sylvie Combes, Hélène Quesnel

Feeding probiotics like live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (SB) in pig diets has been suggested to preserve health and reduce antibiotic use during critical periods like weaning. This study was conducted to determine whether SB added in the diet of sows during the last 2 mo of gestation and the 4 wk of lactation may contribute to supporting health and performance of piglets before and after weaning through changes in sow physiology, milk composition and fecal microbiota. Crossbred sows (n=45) from parity 1 to 9 were allocated to two dietary treatments, Control (n=23) and SB (n=22). Sows in the SB group were fed the same standard gestation then lactation diet as the Control sows but with the addition of SB at 1x10 9 colony forming units/kg of feed. Piglets were weaned under challenging conditions consisting in mixing of litters, no pen cleaning and a 2-h period of non-optimal temperature exposure. Blood and feces were collected from sows on d 28 and 113 of gestation and d 6 (feces only) and 28 of lactation, and from piglets on d 6 (feces) and 28 of lactation and d 5 after weaning. Colostrum was collected during parturition and milk on d 6 of lactation. Supplementation of sow diets with SB influenced the fecal microbiota of the sows and their piglets. Five days after weaning, the alpha-diversity was lower (P < 0.05) in piglets from SB sows than in piglets from Control sows. Analysis of microbiota with Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis discriminated feces from SB sows from that of Control sows at 110 d of gestation (29.4% error rate). Piglet feces could also be discriminated according to the diet of their mother, with a better discrimination early after birth (d 6 of lactation) than after weaning (d 5 post-weaning, 3.4% vs 12.7% error rate). Five d after weaning, piglets had greater white blood cell count, plasma haptoglobin concentration, and oxidative stress than before weaning (P <0.001). Nevertheless, SB supplementation in sow diets had no effect (P > 0.05) on most of health criteria measured in blood and growth performance of piglets during lactation and the post-weaning period. Moreover, dietary supplementation of SB to sows did not elicit any changes (P > 0.05) in their reproductive performance, metabolic and health status, nor in the immunoglobulin and nutrient concentration of colostrum and milk. In the present experimental conditions, feeding SB to sows influenced sow and piglet microbiota with no consequences on their health and performance.