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Inverse design of structural color: finding multiple solutions via conditional generative adversarial networks
Nanophotonics  (IF7.923),  Pub Date : 2022-05-13, DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2022-0095
Peng Dai, Kai Sun, Xingzhao Yan, Otto L. Muskens, C. H. (Kees) de Groot, Xupeng Zhu, Yueqiang Hu, Huigao Duan, Ruomeng Huang

The “one-to-many” problem is a typical challenge that faced by many machine learning aided inverse nanophotonics designs where one target optical response can be achieved by many solutions (designs). Although novel training approaches, such as tandem network, and network architecture, such as the mixture density model, have been proposed, the critical problem of solution degeneracy still exists where some possible solutions or solution spaces are discarded or unreachable during the network training process. Here, we report a solution to the “one-to-many” problem by employing a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) that enables generating sets of multiple solution groups to a design problem. Using the inverse design of a transmissive Fabry–Pérot-cavity-based color filter as an example, our model demonstrates the capability of generating an average number of 3.58 solution groups for each color. These multiple solutions allow the selection of the best design for each color which results in a record high accuracy with an average index color difference ΔE of 0.44. The capability of identifying multiple solution groups can benefit the design manufacturing to allow more viable designs for fabrication. The capability of our cGAN is verified experimentally by inversely designing the RGB color filters. We envisage this cGAN-based design methodology can be applied to other nanophotonic structures or physical science domains where the identification of multi-solution across a vast parameter space is required.