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Nonlinear response of Q-boosting metasurfaces beyond the time-bandwidth limit
Nanophotonics  (IF7.923),  Pub Date : 2022-05-17, DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2022-0082
Pavel A. Shafirin, Varvara V. Zubyuk, Andrey A. Fedyanin, Maxim R. Shcherbakov

Resonant nanostructures, such as photonic metasurfaces, have created an unprecedented case for enhanced light–matter interactions through local field engineering. However, the presence of resonances fundamentally limits the bandwidth of such interactions. Here, we report on amending the nonlinear optical response of a semiconducting metasurface through Q-boosting, where the Q-factor of a metasurface rapidly increases with time. The coupled-mode theory reveals overcoming the bandwidth limit by coupling a broadband signal to a bandwidth-matched resonance and Q-boosting at a timescale faster than a resonator lifetime. A control–excitation experiment simulation using a tailored Q-boosting silicon-germanium metasurface predicts the third-harmonic enhancement by factors of 8 (peak) and 4.5 (integrated) against the best-case static metasurface. An analysis of free-carrier losses based on experimental data shows robustness to nonradiative losses and offers a viable pathway to increasing the light–matter interactions beyond the bandwidth limit, with implications in nonlinear and quantum optics, sensing, and telecommunication technologies.