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Different Methods and Formulations of Drugs and Vaccines for Nasal Administration
Pharmaceutics  (IF6.321),  Pub Date : 2022-05-17, DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14051073
Junhu Tai, Munsoo Han, Dabin Lee, Il-Ho Park, Sang Hag Lee, Tae Hoon Kim

Nasal drug delivery is advantageous when compared with other routes of drug delivery as it avoids the hepatic first-pass effect, blood–brain barrier penetration, and compliance issues with parenteral administration. However, nasal administration also has some limitations, such as its low bioavailability due to metabolism on the mucosal surface, and irreversible damage to the nasal mucosa due to the ingredients added into the formula. Moreover, the method of nasal administration is not applicable to all drugs. The current review presents the nasal anatomy and mucosal environment for the nasal delivery of vaccines and drugs, as well as presents various methods for enhancing nasal absorption, and different drug carriers and delivery devices to improve nasal drug delivery. It also presents future prospects on the nasal drug delivery of vaccines and drugs.