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Poly (N-Vinylcaprolactam-Grafted-Sodium Alginate) Based Injectable pH/Thermo Responsive In Situ Forming Depot Hydrogels for Prolonged Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery; In Vitro, In Vivo Characterization and Toxicity Evaluation
Pharmaceutics  (IF6.321),  Pub Date : 2022-05-13, DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14051050
Samiullah Khan, Muhammad Usman Minhas, Muhammad Tahir Aqeel, Ihsan Shah, Shahzeb Khan, Mohsin Kazi, Zachary N. Warnken

This study was aimed to develop novel in situ forming gels based on N-vinylcaprolactam, sodium alginate, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide. The in situ Poly (NVRCL-g-NaAlg) gels were developed using the cold and free radical polymerization method. The structure formation, thermal stability, and porous nature of gels was confirmed by FTIR, NMR, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The tunable gelation temperature was evaluated by tube titling and rheological analysis. Optical transmittance showed that all formulations demonstrated phase transition around 33 °C. The swelling and release profile showed that gels offered maximum swelling and controlled 5-FU release at 25 °C and pH (7.4), owing to a relaxed state. Porosity and mesh size showed an effect on swelling and drug release. The in vitro degradation profile demonstrated a controlled degradation rate. An MTT assay confirmed that formulations are safe tested against Vero cells. In vitro cytotoxicity showed that 5-FU loaded gels have controlled cytotoxic potential against HeLa and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 39.91 µg/mL and 46.82 µg/mL) compared to free 5-FU (IC50 = 50.52 µg/mL and 53.58 µg/mL). Histopathological study demonstrated no harmful effects of gels on major organs. The in vivo bioavailability in rabbits showed a controlled release in gel form (Cmax, 1433.59 ± 45.09 ng/mL) compared to a free drug (Cmax, 2263.31 ± 13.36 ng/mL) after the subcutaneous injection.