Cabbage has significant heterosis and most commercial cultivars are hybrids. To exploring genetic basis of cabbage heterosis and promote cabbage heterosis utilization, we constructed two populations by crossing 100 DH lines derived from a cabbage hybrid 01-20 × 96-100 with two female parents. Hybrids exhibited different extents of heterosis, the mean value of economic yield was 2.6 times bigger than parents. We identified 66 and 73 QTLs associated with mid-parent heterosis and transgressive heterosis of twelve yield-related traits, respectively. Some QTLs could be detected under the two-year experiment existed in two populations with different testers, showing relatively high phenotypic contribution rate (15.8%–20.0%). Heterosis QTLs exhibited clustered distribution in several cabbage chromosome regions. Two dominant genetic regions, mk300-316 and mk258-268, originated from the elite parent 01-20, exhibited significant genetic effects for yield-related heterosis, which were first identified. Three elite DH lines (D22, D46, D83) harboring these two dominant regions were selected as having strong heterosis in cabbage production. Candidate gene analysis revealed that some genes participating in biosynthetic processes of carbohydrates and some responses to auxin might affect cabbage yield heterosis. QTL identification and genetic dissection of yield-related traits provide new insights into the genetic effects of cabbage heterosis.