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Example:10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Organic anions facilitate the mobilization of soil organic phosphorus and its subsequent lability to phosphatases
Plant and Soil  (IF4.993),  Pub Date : 2022-04-18, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-022-05405-5
Alan E. Richardson, Timothy S. George, Maarten Hens, Emmanuel Delhaize, Peter R. Ryan, Richard J. Simpson, Peter J. Hocking

Purpose

Organic anions commonly released from plant roots and microorganisms are widely reported to mobilize soil phosphorus (P). We characterized soil organic P that was mobilized by organic anions and assessed its amenability to hydrolysis by phosphatase enzymes.

Methods

Six soils differing in organic P concentration were extracted with citrate, malate or oxalate solutions and incubated with preparations of phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, or phytase. Organic P compounds present in these extracts were putatively identified and quantified with solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy and the enzyme-labile P fractions were assessed by changes in molybdate-reactive P (MRP) concentration.

Results

Organic P mobilization varied markedly among the organic anions. Extraction with 10 mM citrate was most effective and extracted 7.8-fold more total P than the water controls across all soils. Approximately 95% of the extracted P was non-MRP. The organic anions increased both the amount of P extracted and the proportion of the total extracted P that was phosphatase-labile. Phytase was generally the most effective enzyme with up to 60% of the total non-MRP being amenable to hydrolysis by phytase across all extracts. The presence of inositol hexakisphosphates in the extracts, as well as other forms of organic P including nucleic acids and phospholipids, was verified by 31P-NMR with concentrations dependent on both organic anions and soil type.

Conclusion

The combination of organic anions and phosphatases represents a key mechanism by which plants and microorganisms can enhance the bioavailability of soil P. This has important implications for understanding P dynamics in natural and managed ecosystems and for ongoing efforts to improve the P-acquisition efficiency of agricultural plants.