Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and pro-apototic drugs activating the apoptotic pathway are a strategy for anticancer therapy. To explore new antineoplastic agents, a series of novel mono-indolylbenzoquinone derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Compared with the lead bis-indolylbenzoquinones, most of the novel mono-indolylbenzoquinone derivatives have significantly increased their activity against A549, HeLa, and especially, MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Among them, 10d has the lowest IC50 value of 70 nM on MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, its oral toxicity is extremely low with an LD50 value of 374 mg/kg and no obvious liver and kidney damage to mice. 10d down-regulated Bcl-2, up-regulated Bax, and increased the release of cytochrome C, caspase3 and 9. 10d also up-regulated the expression of p53, catalase, and HTRA2/Omi. Therefore, 10d may exert its anticancer activity by activating apoptotic pathway and p53 expression. In vivo, 10d suppressed breast cancer 4T1 tumor growth with 36% inhibition ratio of tumor by intraperitoneal injection in mice. Furthermore, a cross-linked cyanoacrylate (CA)-based local sustained-release drug delivery systems (LSRDDSs) improved 10d anticancer activity to 49.8% inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, 10d could be a promising drug candidate for clinical development to treat metastatic breast cancer.