Example：10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
A structural equation modeling approach for modeling variability as a latent variable. Psychological Methods (IF10.929), Pub Date : 2022-04-11, DOI: 10.1037/met0000477 Yi Feng, Gregory R. Hancock
Drawing upon recent developments in structural equation modeling, the current study presents an analytical framework for addressing research questions in which, rather than focusing on means, it is intraindividual (or intragroup) variability that is of direct research interest. Beyond merely serving as an alternative to existing multilevel modeling approaches, this framework allows for extensions to accommodate a variety of complex research scenarios by parameterizing variability as a latent variable that can in turn be embedded within a broader covariance and mean structure involving other observed and/or latent variables. The estimation procedures and parameter interpretation for the latent random variability models are discussed. The versatility of the proposed methods is demonstrated through four empirical examples. The Mplus, BUGS, and Stan model syntax for the illustrative examples are supplied to facilitate the application of the methods.