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Clinical features and prognostic analysis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience  (IF2.54),  Pub Date : 2022-04-20, DOI: 10.1002/jdn.10184
Ting Deng,Xinyu Zhang,Xiaoling Peng,Hailun Peng,Ling He,Yue Hu

BACKGROUND We aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in children. METHODS Clinical data of children with PRES diagnosed at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2015 to May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS The study enrolled 47 patients with a mean age at diagnosis of 8.79 ± 3.72 years (range, 2-15 years). PRES causes included renal disorder (29/47), hematological disease (13/47), and hypertension (5/47). PRES manifested as seizure (43/47), headache (28/47), visual impairment (18/47), dizziness (18/47), vomiting (18/47), and mental and behavioral abnormalities (17/47). Forty-six children had hypertension (46/47) at PRES onset. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mainly involved the parietal and occipital lobes (42/47), 38 cases were mild (38/47), seven were moderate (7/47), and two were severe (2/47). The clinical symptoms of 41 patients (41/47) were relieved within 1-2 weeks. Thirty-seven children were followed up for 7-54 months (modified Rankin Scale). Twenty-five children had favorable outcomes (25/37). Twelve children had adverse outcomes (12/37), including epilepsy, disorders of consciousness, visual impairment, and mental decline. Analysis of single factors revealed that severity on MRI, length of in-hospital stay, and mental and behavioral abnormalities were related to adverse outcomes after PRES. Analysis of multiple factors revealed that severity on MRI and length of in-hospital stay were independent risk factors for PRES. CONCLUSION Pediatric PRES is a clinical radiographic syndrome with multiple etiologies. Most patients have a good prognosis. Severity on MRI and length of in-hospital stay are independent risk factors.