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A bulked segregant analysis tool for out-crossing species (BSATOS) and QTL-based genomics-assisted prediction of complex traits in apple
Journal of Advanced Research  (IF12.822),  Pub Date : 2022-03-26, DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2022.03.013
Fei Shen, Luca Bianco, Bei Wu, Zhendong Tian, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Zhenhai Han, Riccardo Velasco, Paolo Fontana, Xinzhong Zhang

Introduction

Genomic heterozygosity, self-incompatibility, and rich-in somatic mutations hinder the molecular breeding efficiency of outcrossing plants. Objectives: We attempted to develop an efficient integrated strategy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and trait-associated genes, to develop gene markers, and to construct genomics-assisted prediction (GAP) modes. Methods: A novel protocol, bulked segregant analysis tool for out-crossing species (BSATOS), is presented here, which is characterized by taking full advantage of all segregation patterns (including AB × AB markers) and haplotype information. To verify the effectiveness of the protocol in dealing with the complex traits of outbreeding species, three apple cross populations with 9,654 individuals were adopted. Results: By using BSATOS, 90, 60, and 77 significant QTLs were identified successfully and candidate genes were predicted for apple fruit weight (FW), fruit ripening date (FRD), and fruit soluble solid content (SSC), respectively. The gene-based markers were developed and genotyped for 1,396 individuals in a training population, including 145 Malus accessions and 1,251 F1 plants of the three full-sib families. GAP models were trained using marker genotype effect estimates of the training population. The prediction accuracy was 0.7658, 0.6455, and 0.3758 for FW, FRD, and SSC, respectively. Conclusion: The BSATOS and GAP models provided a convenient and efficient methodology for candidate gene mining and molecular breeding in out-crossing plant species. The BSATOS pipeline can be freely downloaded from: https://github.com/maypoleflyn/BSATOS.