Childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) can have lasting effects on well-being. Children also display resilience following IPV exposure. Yet, little research has prospectively followed changes in both maladaptive and adaptive outcomes in children who experience IPV in early life. The goal of the current study was to investigate how child factors (irritability), trauma history (severity of IPV exposure), maternal factors (mental health, parenting), and early intervention relate to trajectories of behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing problems) and resilience (prosocial behavior, emotion regulation), over 8 years. One hundred twenty mother-child dyads participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial of an intervention for IPV-exposed children and their mothers. Families completed follow-up assessments 6–8 months (N = 71) and 6–8 years (N = 68) later. Although intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant intervention effects, per-protocol analyses suggested that participants receiving an effective dose (eight sessions) of the treatment had fewer internalizing problems over time. Child irritability and maternal parenting were associated with both behavior problems and resilience. Maternal mental health was uniquely associated with child behavior problems, whereas maternal positive parenting was uniquely associated with child resilience. Results support the need for a dyadic perspective on child adjustment following IPV exposure.