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Latent classes of oppositional defiant disorder in adolescence and prediction to later psychopathology
Development and Psychopathology  (IF5.317),  Pub Date : 2022-01-25, DOI: 10.1017/s0954579421001875
Sarah J. Racz, Robert J. McMahon, Gretchen Gudmundsen, Elizabeth McCauley, Ann Vander Stoep

Current conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) place the symptoms of this disorder within three separate but related dimensions (i.e., angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, vindictiveness). Variable-centered models of these dimensions have yielded discrepant findings, limiting their clinical utility. The current study utilized person-centered latent class analysis based on self and parent report of ODD symptomatology from a community-based cohort study of 521 adolescents. We tested for sex, race, and age differences in the identified classes and investigated their ability to predict later symptoms of depression and conduct disorder (CD). Diagnostic information regarding ODD, depression, and CD were collected annually from adolescents (grades 6–9; 51.9% male; 48.7% White, 28.2% Black, 18.5% Asian) and a parent. Results provided evidence for three classes of ODD (high, medium, and low endorsement of symptoms), which demonstrated important developmental differences across time. Based on self-report, Black adolescents were more likely to be in the high and medium classes, while according to parent report, White adolescents were more likely to be in the high and medium classes. Membership in the high and medium classes predicted later increases in symptoms of depression and CD, with the high class showing the greatest risk for later psychopathology.