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The proton charge radius
Reviews of Modern Physics  (IF50.485),  Pub Date : 2022-01-21, DOI: 10.1103/revmodphys.94.015002
H. Gao, M. Vanderhaeghen

Nucleons (protons and neutrons) are the building blocks of atomic nuclei and are responsible for more than 99% of the visible matter in the Universe. Despite decades of efforts in studying its internal structure, there are still a number of puzzles surrounding the proton such as its spin and charge radius. Accurate knowledge about the proton charge radius is not only essential for understanding how QCD works in the nonperturbative region but also important for bound state QED calculations of atomic energy levels. It also has an impact on the Rydberg constant, one of the most precisely measured fundamental constants in nature. This review examines the latest situation concerning the proton charge radius in light of the new experimental results from both atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron-scattering measurements, with particular focus on the latter. Theoretical backgrounds and recent developments concerning the determination of the proton charge radius using different experimental techniques are also presented. Upcoming experiments are discussed, and the deuteron charge radius puzzle is mentioned at the end.