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Hydroxylation decoration patterns of flavonoids in horticultural crops: chemistry, bioactivity and biosynthesis.
Horticulture Research  (IF6.793),  Pub Date : 2022-01-20, DOI: 10.1093/hr/uhab068
Yilong Liu,Jiafei Qian,Jiajia Li,Mengyun Xing,Donald Grierson,Chongde Sun,Changjie Xu,Xian Li,Kunsong Chen

Flavonoids are the most widespread polyphenolic compounds and are important dietary constituents present in horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, and tea. Natural flavonoids are responsible for important quality traits, such as food colors and beneficial dietary antioxidants and numerous investigations have shown that intake of flavonoids can reduce the incidence of various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Analysis of the thousands of flavonoids reported so far has shown that different hydroxylation modifications affect their chemical properties and nutritional values. These diverse flavonoids can be classified based on different hydroxylation patterns in the B, C, A rings and multiple structure-activity analyses have shown that hydroxylation decoration at specific positions markedly enhances their bioactivities. This review focuses on current knowledge concerning hydroxylation of flavonoids catalyzed by several different types of hydroxylase enzymes. Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) are important enzymes for the hydroxylation of the B ring of flavonoids. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is key for the hydroxylation of the C ring, while flavone 6-hydroxylase (F6H) and flavone 8-hydroxylase (F8H) are key enzymes for hydroxylation of the A ring. These key hydroxylases in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway are promising targets for the future bioengineering of plants and mass production of flavonoids with designated hydroxylation patterns of high nutritional importance. In addition, hydroxylation in key places on the ring may help render flavonoids ready for degradation, the catabolic turnover of which may open the door for new lines of inquiry.