The increasing frequency of urban floods worldwide due to rapid urbanization, frequent climatic extremes, or poor drainage conditions necessitates evaluating the performance of the urban drainage systems (UDS) and enhancing their resilience. In this study, a comprehensive assessment of the UDS of Gurugram City, India, through the concepts of sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) is presented. A stormwater management model (SWMM) was set up to model the existing UDS response to a design storm of a 5-year return period. The increase in percentage imperviousness (due to urbanization) and rainfall intensity (due to climate change) are considered the governing factors for functional failures. The results revealed climate change to be a more severe threat to UDS than urbanization, while their combinations can further worsen the repercussions. The structural failure was modelled using the single link-failure scenarios, where 3 and 12 conduits possessed low resilience and no resilience (severe), respectively. The role of SuDS in enhancing the resilience of UDS was assessed by simulating all these functional and structural failure scenarios for three SuDS-implemented conditions, i.e., only infiltration trenches (SuDSIT), only retention ponds (SuDSRP), and both of them together (SuDSIT+RP). The SuDS abated the flood magnitudes, delayed the time to peak flow, and stored an additional volume of water within the catchment, thereby justifying their efficacy to mitigate the pluvial flood and enhance the resilience of UDS. The findings of this study encourage implementing SuDS over the developing countries to bring down the frequency of urban floods.