Current noninvasive methods for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are not optimized for persons with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), requiring patients to undergo frequent interval screening via colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy-based screening reduces CRC incidence in IBD patients, rates of interval CRC remain relatively high, highlighting the need for more targeted approaches. In recent years, the discovery of disease-specific microbiome signatures for both IBD and CRC has begun to emerge, suggesting that stool-based biomarker detection using metagenomics and other culture-independent technologies may be useful for personalized, early, noninvasive CRC screening in IBD patients. Here we discuss the utility of the stool microbiome as a noninvasive CRC screening tool. Comparing the performance of multiple microbiome-based CRC classifiers, including several multi-cohort meta-analyses, we find that noninvasive detection of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas from microbial biomarkers is an active area of study with promising early results.