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Colorectal Cancer Screening in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—Can Characterization of GI Microbiome Signatures Enhance Neoplasia Detection?
Gastroenterology  (IF22.682),  Pub Date : 2022-01-06, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.12.287
Molly Pratt, Jessica D. Forbes, Natalie C. Knox, Gary Van Domselaar, Charles N. Bernstein

Current noninvasive methods for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are not optimized for persons with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), requiring patients to undergo frequent interval screening via colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy-based screening reduces CRC incidence in IBD patients, rates of interval CRC remain relatively high, highlighting the need for more targeted approaches. In recent years, the discovery of disease-specific microbiome signatures for both IBD and CRC has begun to emerge, suggesting that stool-based biomarker detection using metagenomics and other culture-independent technologies may be useful for personalized, early, noninvasive CRC screening in IBD patients. Here we discuss the utility of the stool microbiome as a noninvasive CRC screening tool. Comparing the performance of multiple microbiome-based CRC classifiers, including several multi-cohort meta-analyses, we find that noninvasive detection of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas from microbial biomarkers is an active area of study with promising early results.