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What Do We Know About the Genetic Architecture of Psychopathology?
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology  (IF18.561),  Pub Date : 2022-05-09, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-081219-091234
Evan J. Giangrande, Ramona S. Weber, Eric Turkheimer

In the second half of the twentieth century, twin and family studies established beyond a reasonable doubt that all forms of psychopathology are substantially heritable and highly polygenic. These conclusions were simultaneously an important theoretical advance and a difficult methodological obstacle, as it became clear that heritability is universal and undifferentiated across forms of psychopathology, and the radical polygenicity of genetic effects limits the biological insight provided by genetically informed studies at the phenotypic level. The paradigm-shifting revolution brought on by the Human Genome Project has recapitulated the great methodological promise and the profound theoretical difficulties of the twin study era. We review these issues using the rubric of genetic architecture, which we define as a search for specific genetic insight that adds to the general conclusion that psychopathology is heritable and polygenic. Although significant problems remain, we see many promising avenues for progress.