Based on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data obtained from the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, this study focused on analyzing the pollution situation, trends, and pollution frequency changes in the urban area of Heilongjiang Province from February 2015 to April 2019. We also used and analyzed the social emission source list and human comfort index data to examine the potential relationship between the above factors and changes in air quality. And we used the Spearman correlation coefficient to explore the correlation between groups of variables. This study quantified the impacts of social development factors and meteorological parameters on PM2.5 and the INDEX which is a comprehensive consideration of the evaluation indicators (social economy, PM2.5, living environment comfort) through the entropy method and stepwise regression analysis. The key findings included the following: (1) The pollution period in Heilongjiang Province was from October to February, and Harbin had the longest annual pollution period. (2) The PM2.5 concentration was weakly correlated (+) with the energy consumption of industry enterprise (ECIE) and temperature (T). (3) The most significant contributors to INDEX was number of automobiles per 100 Urban Households, which reflected that AUH can be controlled to achieve the goal of reducing PM2.5 concentration on the premise of ensuring stable social and economic development and reducing air pollutants to human health. This showed that social activities played an important role in the economy, air quality, and living environment comfort. This study is of great significance to urban environmental governance.