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Ileal alkaline phosphatase is upregulated following functional amino acid supplementation in Salmonella Typhimurium-challenged pigs
Journal of Animal Science  (IF3.159),  Pub Date : 2021-12-28, DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab376
Lucas A Rodrigues, Michael O Wellington, J Caroline González-Vega, John K Htoo, Andrew G Van Kessel, Daniel A Columbus

We recently showed that functional amino acid (FAA) supplementation improves growth performance and immune status of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST)-challenged pigs, which was further improved by a longer adaptation period. It is expected that the effects are associated with increased activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of FAA supplementation and adaptation period on the ileal, cecal, and colonic activity of IAP in weaned pigs challenged with ST. In experiment 1, a total of 32 mixed-sex weanling pigs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (FAA–) or FAA profile (FAA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. In experiment 2, a total of 32 mixed-sex weanling pigs were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments, being FAA− fed throughout the experimental period (FAA−) or an FAA profile fed only in the post-inoculation (FAA + 0), for 1 wk pre- and post-inoculation (FAA + 1), or throughout the experimental period (FAA + 2). In experiments 1 and 2, after a 7- and 14-d adaptation period, respectively, pigs were inoculated with saline solution containing ST (3.3 and 2.2 × 109 CFU/mL, respectively). Plasma alkaline phosphatase was measured on days 0 and 7 post-inoculation in experiment 1, and IAP (ileum, cecum, and colon) was measured in experiments 1 and 2. Correlations among ileal IAP and serum albumin and haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced:oxidized glutathione, ileal myeloperoxidase, ST shedding and ileal colonization, and post-inoculation average daily gain, feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed were also analyzed. In experiment 1, plasma alkaline phosphatase was decreased with ST inoculation and the overall content was increased in LP-FAA+ compared with LP-FAA− (P < 0.05). Moreover, ileal IAP was increased in FAA+ compared with FAA− pigs in both studies (P < 0.05) regardless of adaptation time (P > 0.05). IAP was positively correlated with MDA and ADFI and negatively correlated with SOD and ST shedding in experiment 1 (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, but not adaptation period, on ileal alkaline phosphatase activity in Salmonella-challenged pigs, which may be associated with improvements in antioxidant balance.