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Example:10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Shiftless inhibits flavivirus replication in vitro and is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Zika virus pathogenesis [Microbiology]
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  (IF11.205),  Pub Date : 2021-12-07, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111266118
Natasha W. Hanners, Katrina B. Mar, Ian N. Boys, Jennifer L. Eitson, Pamela C. De La Cruz-Rivera, R. Blake Richardson, Wenchun Fan, Mary Wight-Carter, John W. Schoggins

Flaviviruses such as Zika virus and West Nile virus have the potential to cause severe neuropathology if they invade the central nervous system. The type I interferon response is well characterized as contributing to control of flavivirus-induced neuropathogenesis. However, the interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) effectors that confer these neuroprotective effects are less well studied. Here, we used an ISG expression screen to identify Shiftless (SHFL, C19orf66) as a potent inhibitor of diverse positive-stranded RNA viruses, including multiple members of the Flaviviridae (Zika, West Nile, dengue, yellow fever, and hepatitis C viruses). In cultured cells, SHFL functions as a viral RNA-binding protein that inhibits viral replication at a step after primary translation of the incoming genome. The murine ortholog, Shfl, is expressed constitutively in multiple tissues, including the central nervous system. In a mouse model of Zika virus infection, Shfl−/− knockout mice exhibit reduced survival, exacerbated neuropathological outcomes, and increased viral replication in the brain and spinal cord. These studies demonstrate that Shfl is an important antiviral effector that contributes to host protection from Zika virus infection and virus-induced neuropathological disease.