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Aptamer-Based Antibacterial and Antiviral Therapy against Infectious Diseases
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  (IF7.446),  Pub Date : 2021-12-02, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c01567
Xiao-Fei Chen, Xin Zhao, Zifeng Yang

Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules selected in vitro that can bind to a broad range of targets with high affinity and specificity. As promising alternatives to conventional anti-infective agents, aptamers have gradually revealed their potential in the combat against infectious diseases. This article provides an overview on the state-of-art of aptamer-based antibacterial and antiviral therapeutic strategies. Diverse aptamers targeting pathogen-related components or whole pathogenic cells are summarized according to the species of microorganisms. These aptamers exhibited remarkable in vitro and/or in vivo inhibitory effect for pathogenic invasion, enzymatic activities, or viral replication, even for some highly drug-resistant strains and biofilms. Aptamer-mediated drug delivery and controlled drug release strategies are also included herein. Critical technical barriers of therapeutic aptamers are briefly discussed, followed by some future perspectives for their implementation into clinical utility.