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Spectral characterization of liquid hemoglobin phantoms with varying oxygenation states.
Journal of Biomedical Optics  (IF3.17),  Pub Date : 2021-12-01, DOI: 10.1117/1.jbo.27.7.074708
Motasam Majedy,Rolf B Saager,Tomas Strömberg,Marcus Larsson,E Göran Salerud

SIGNIFICANCE For optical methods to accurately assess hemoglobin oxygen saturation in vivo, an independently verifiable tissue-like standard is required for validation. For this purpose, we propose three hemoglobin preparations and evaluate methods to characterize them. AIM To spectrally characterize three different hemoglobin preparations using multiple spectroscopic methods and to compare their absorption spectra to commonly used reference spectra. APPROACH Absorption spectra of three hemoglobin preparations in solution were characterized using spectroscopic collimated transmission: whole blood, lysed blood, and ferrous-stabilized hemoglobin. Tissue-mimicking phantoms composed of Intralipid, and the hemoglobin solutions were characterized using spatial frequency-domain spectroscopy (SFDS) and enhanced perfusion and oxygen saturation (EPOS) techniques while using yeast to deplete oxygen. RESULTS All hemoglobin preparations exhibited similar absorption spectra when accounting for methemoglobin and scattering in their oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin forms, respectively. However, systematic differences were observed in the fitting depending on the reference spectra used. For the tissue-mimicking phantoms, SFDS measurements at the surface of the phantom were affected by oxygen diffusion at the interface with air, associated with higher values than for the EPOS system. CONCLUSIONS We show the validity of different blood phantoms and what considerations need to be addressed in each case to utilize them equivalently.