The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase, which is also referred to as respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH), affects several processes in plants. However, the role of RBOHs in cell wall lignification is not well understood. In this study, we show that PuRBOHF, an RBOH isoform, plays an important role in secondary wall formation in pear stone cells. ROS were closely associated with lignin deposition and stone cell formation according to microscopy data. In addition, according to the results of an in situ hybridization analysis, the stage-specific expression of PuRBOHF was higher in stone cells than in cells of other flesh tissues. Inhibitors of RBOH activity suppressed ROS accumulation and stone cell lignification in pear fruit. Moreover, transient overexpression of PuRBOHF caused significant changes in the amount of ROS and lignin that accumulated in pear fruit and flesh calli. We further showed that PuMYB169 regulates PuRBOHF expression, while PuRBOHF-derived ROS induces the transcription of PuPOD2 and PuLAC2. The findings of this study indicate that PuRBOHF-mediated ROS production, which is regulated by a lignin-related transcriptional network, is essential for monolignol polymerization and stone cell formation in pear fruit.