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Influence of shunt type on survival and right heart function after the Norwood procedure for aortic atresia
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery  (IF2.006),  Pub Date : 2021-11-25, DOI: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.11.012
Nicole Piber, Masamichi Ono, Jonas Palm, Takashi Kido, Melchior Burri, Christoph Röhlig, Martina Strbad, Julie Cleuziou, Julia Lemmer, Daniel Dilber, Frank Klawonn, Peter Ewert, Alfred Hager, Jürgen Hörer

The study objective was to compare the results after Norwood procedure between modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) and right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (RVPAC) according to Sano in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and aortic atresia (AA). A total of 146 neonates with HLHS and AA who underwent the Norwood procedure at our institution between 2001 and 2020 were divided into two groups according to shunt type (MBTS or RVPAC). Survival after the Norwood procedure was compared between the groups. Longitudinal right ventricular and tricuspid valve -function in each group were evaluated using cubic splines method. RVPAC was performed in 103 patients and MBTS in 43 according to surgeon preference. There were no differences in the 30-day mortality rates (16.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.973). Survival at 0.5, 1 and 3 years was 79.6%, 74.6%, and 68.9% in RVPAC and 66.8%, 64.3%, and 58.5% in MBTS (p=0.293). Among 23 patients undergoing tricuspid valve procedure, different mechanisms of tricuspid regurgitation were observed between the groups. Longitudinal analysis revealed greater prevalence of late right ventricular dysfunction in RVPAC patients. In 77 patients who completed Fontan procedure, the postoperative N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) value was significantly higher in RVPAC vs. MBTS (554 vs. 276 ng/L, p=0.007). No survival advantage of RVPAC over MBTS was observed in neonates with HLHS and AA undergoing the Norwood procedure. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated a greater prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction and higher NT-proBNP values during late follow-up in patients with RVPAC.