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Enhanced energy storage properties and antiferroelectric stability of Mn-doped NaNbO3-CaHfO3 lead-free ceramics: Regulating phase structure and tolerance factor
Journal of Materiomics  (IF6.425),  Pub Date : 2021-11-25, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmat.2021.11.013
Yang Yin, Jing-Ru Yu, Yu-Cheng Tang, Ai-Zhen Song, Huan Liu, Dong Yang, Jing-Feng Li, Lei Zhao, Bo-Ping Zhang

NaNbO3-based ceramics usually show ferroelectric-like P-E loops at room temperature due to the irreversible transformation of the antiferroelectric orthorhombic phase to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase, which is not conducive to energy storage applications. Our previous work found that incorporating CaHfO3 into NaNbO3 can stabilize its antiferroelectric phase by reducing the tolerance factor (t), as indicated by the appearance of characteristic double P-E loops. Furthermore, a small amount of MnO2 addition effectively regulate the phase structure and tolerance factor of 0.94NaNbO3-0.06CaHfO3 (0.94NN-0.06CH), which can further improve the stability of antiferroelectricity. The XRD and XPS results reveal that the Mn ions preferentially replace A-sites and then B-sites as increasing MnO2. The antiferroelectric orthorhombic phase first increases and then decreases, while the t shows the reversed trend, thus an enhanced antiferroelectricity and the energy storage density Wrec of 1.69 J/cm3 at 240 kV/cm are obtained for 0.94NN-0.06CH-0.5%MnO2(in mass fraction). With the increase of Mn content to 1.0 % from 0.5 %, the efficiency increases to 81 % from 45 %, although the energy storage density decreases to 1.31 J/cm3 due to both increased tolerance factor and non-polar phase.