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Vapor cloud explosions in various types of confined environments: CFD analysis and model validation
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries  (IF3.66),  Pub Date : 2021-11-25, DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2021.104681
G. Momferatos, S.G. Giannissi, I.C. Tolias, A.G. Venetsanos, A. Vlyssides, N. Markatos

In the current work, three different types of vapor cloud explosion experiments are simulated. The purpose of the simulations is twofold: firstly, to evaluate a recently developed CFD model and secondly to analyze the involved phenomena with the help of the simulation results. The proposed model, which has been implemented in the ADREA-HF CFD code, utilizes the RANS method using the Kato and Launder modification of k-e model. Combustion is modelled by taking into account the main mechanisms that contribute to the phenomenon such as chemistry, turbulence generated from the obstacles in front of the flame front, flame instabilities and turbulence generated by the flame-front itself. The CFD model is evaluated against different types of explosions in different geometries and with various fuels. Uniform premixed fuel-air mixture is considered in all cases. A large scale vented deflagration experiment in a 10 m length enclosure is firstly simulated using methane as fuel. The external explosion effect is apparent in this case. Then, a hydrogen deflagration experiment in a 78.5 m tunnel is simulated. Four mock-up cars are placed in the premixed region. Finally, propane and methane explosions inside a 1.5 m tube with obstacles and intense turbulence are simulated. Two different obstacle configurations are studied. The model predicts the overpressure values satisfactorily in all the examined cases. The factors that contribute to the pressure rise in each stage of each experiment are discussed based on the simulation results.