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Different copper sources and levels affect growth performance, copper content, carcass characteristics, intestinal microorganism and metabolism of finishing pigs
Animal Nutrition  (IF6.383),  Pub Date : 2021-11-16, DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2021.10.007
Yang Wen, Runxian Li, Xiangshu Piao, Gang Lin, Pingli He

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element in the production of swine. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 3 different sources of Cu on growth performance, Cu metabolism, and intestinal microorganisms of finishing pigs, so as to estimate the bioavailability of the 3 sources for pigs. A total of 42 male finishing pigs (88.74 ± 5.74 kg) were randomly allocated to 7 treatments. The factors were 3 sources (CuSO4, Cu-glycine, Cu-proteinate) and 2 levels (5 and 20 mg/kg) of Cu, plus one negative control treatment (0 mg/kg added Cu level) for the entire 28-d experiment. The average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain ratio (F:G) both increased when Cu was added. The Cu level in liver, bile, kidney, serum, lung, urine and feces rose (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Cu level regardless of the source. Meanwhile, pigs receiving organic Cu (glycinate or proteinate) retained more Cu and excreted less Cu than those receiving inorganic Cu (CuSO4), which showed that organic forms were more bioavailable. At the transcriptional level, changes in the level and source of dietary Cu resulted in modulation of transporters. In the jejunal mucosa, import transporter high affinity copper uptake protein 1 (CTR1) and export transporter ATPase copper transporting alpha (ATP7A) in supplemental Cu treatments were down-regulated compared to the control. Also, peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and lanine-serine-cysteine transporter, type-2 (ASCT2) were significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated in 20 mg/kg Cu-proteinate and Cu-glycinate treatments, respectively. Microbial diversity was lowest in the 20 mg/kg CuSO4 treatment, and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was higher in added Cu treatments, especially Cu-glycinate treatment. These results indicate that uptake of different Cu forms is facilitated by different transporters and transport mechanisms, and compared with inorganic Cu, organic Cu provides benefits to intestinal microflora and reduces Cu excretion.