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Characterization and Tomography of a Hidden Qubit
Physical Review X  (IF15.762),  Pub Date : 2021-11-15, DOI: 10.1103/physrevx.11.041032
M. Pechal, G. Salis, M. Ganzhorn, D. J. Egger, M. Werninghaus, S. Filipp

In circuit-based quantum computing the available gate set typically consists of single-qubit gates acting on each individual qubit and at least one entangling gate between pairs of qubits. In certain physical architectures, however, some qubits may be “hidden” and lacking direct addressability through dedicated control and readout lines, for instance, because of limited on-chip routing capabilities, or because the number of control lines becomes a limiting factor for many-qubit systems. In this case, no single-qubit operations can be applied to the hidden qubits and their state cannot be measured directly. Instead, they may be controlled and read out only via single-qubit operations on connected “control” qubits and a suitable set of two-qubit gates. We first discuss the impact of such restricted control capabilities on the performance of specific qubit coupling networks. We then experimentally demonstrate full control and measurement capabilities in a superconducting two-qubit device with local single-qubit control and iswap and controlled-phase two-qubit interactions enabled by a tunable coupler. We further introduce an iterative tune-up process required to completely characterize the gate set used for quantum process tomography and evaluate the resulting gate fidelities.