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Quantum Simulation of Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain with Gate-Defined Quantum Dots
Physical Review X  (IF15.762),  Pub Date : 2021-11-04, DOI: 10.1103/physrevx.11.041025
C. J. van Diepen, T.-K. Hsiao, U. Mukhopadhyay, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, L. M. K. Vandersypen

Quantum-mechanical correlations of interacting fermions result in the emergence of exotic phases. Magnetic phases naturally arise in the Mott-insulator regime of the Fermi-Hubbard model, where charges are localized and the spin degree of freedom remains. In this regime, the occurrence of phenomena such as resonating valence bonds, frustrated magnetism, and spin liquids is predicted. Quantum systems with engineered Hamiltonians can be used as simulators of such spin physics to provide insights beyond the capabilities of analytical methods and classical computers. To be useful, methods for the preparation of intricate many-body spin states and access to relevant observables are required. Here, we show the quantum simulation of magnetism in the Mott-insulator regime with a linear quantum-dot array. We characterize the energy spectrum for a Heisenberg spin chain, from which we can identify when the conditions for homogeneous exchange couplings are met. Next, we study the multispin coherence with global exchange oscillations in both the singlet and triplet subspace of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Last, we adiabatically prepare the low-energy global singlet of the homogeneous spin chain and probe it with two-spin singlet-triplet measurements on each nearest-neighbor pair and the correlations therein. The methods and control presented here open new opportunities for the simulation of quantum magnetism benefiting from the flexibility in tuning and layout of gate-defined quantum-dot arrays.