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On the metals compatibility assessment for oxygen service
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries  (IF3.66),  Pub Date : 2021-10-29, DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2021.104670
Vasanth C. Shunmugasamy, Gwenael J.A. Chiffoleau, Elliot Forsyth, Nicholas J. Laycock, Alfred Kruijer, Bilal Mansoor

This review article critically analyzes the selection and compatibility assessment framework of metallic alloys in pure oxygen (>99.5%) atmospheres using promoted combustion and particle impact ignition tests in combination with the Pressure-Velocity (PV) curves. The historical test data for four important metallic alloys frequently used in the oil and gas industry, namely nickel alloys C276 and 600, stainless steel 304 and 316, are mined and analyzed to: (i) capture trends and correlation of data obtained by these two tests with the PV curves, (ii) identify gaps in the data for critical process variables such as temperature, pressure and gas velocity, (iii) identify limitations of the two tests, (iv) understand the relevance of shape factors and geometry of test samples and flowing vs. non-flowing conditions on test results and (v) evaluate whether exemption pressures and PV curves can be extended or adjusted for important metals to accommodate more demanding conditions. In industry practices, PV curves are utilized to impose velocity limitations in oxygen systems to help mitigate particle impact ignition when the operating pressures are greater than alloys exemption pressures. Our analysis shows, current version of PV curves - based primarily on historical data and industry experience are conservative, limited to specific thicknesses and available only up to 200 °C for both exempt and non-exemptalloys. For the oil and gas industry where conditions up to 300°C and 80 bar are desired, there is a need to conduct new testing to develop guidelines for thinner cross-sections and more demanding operating conditions including higher temperatures and pressures.This will open avenues for new innovations and applications of gaseous oxygen and help industries operate their plants with higher efficiencies.