Certain infected individuals suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the absence of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Elucidating the underlying mechanism(s) is of high interest. Here we present two contrasting case reports of HIV-infected individuals who controlled plasma viremia for extended periods after undergoing analytical treatment interruption (ATI). In Participant 04, who experienced viral blips and initiated undisclosed self-administration of suboptimal ART detected shortly before day 1,250, phylogenetic analyses of plasma HIV env sequences suggested continuous viral evolution and/or reactivation of pre-existing viral reservoirs over time. Antiviral CD8+ T cell activities were higher in Participant 04 than in Participant 30. In contrast, Participant 30 exhibited potent plasma-IgG-mediated neutralization activity against autologous virus that became ineffective when he experienced sudden plasma viral rebound 1,434 d after ATI due to HIV superinfection. Our data provide insight into distinct mechanisms of post-treatment interruption control and highlight the importance of frequent monitoring of undisclosed use of ART and superinfection during the ATI phase.