Aviation emissions from landing and takeoff operations (LTO) can degrade local and regional air quality leading to adverse health outcomes in populations near airports and downwind. In this study we aim to quantify the air quality and health-related impacts from commercial LTO emissions in the continental U.S. for two recent years’ inventories, 2011 and 2016. We quantify the LTO-attributable PM2.5, O3, and NO2 concentrations and health outcomes for mortality and multiple morbidity health endpoints. We also quantify the impacts from two scenarios representing a nation-wide implementation of 5% or 50% blends of sustainable alternative jet fuels. We estimate 80 (68–93) and 88 (75–100) PM2.5-attributable and 610 (310–920) and 1,100 (570–1,700) NO2-attributable premature mortalities in 2011 and 2016, respectively. We estimate a net decrease of 28 (14–56) and 54 (27–110) in O3-attributable premature mortalities across the U.S. in 2011 and 2016, respectively due to the large O3 titration effects near the airports. We also find that the asthma exacerbations due to NO2 exposures from LTO emissions increase from 100,000 (2,500–200,000) in 2011 to 170,000 (4,400–340,000) in 2016. Implementing a 5% or 50% blend of sustainable alternative jet fuel in 2016 results in a 1% or 18% reduction, respectively in PM2.5-attributable premature mortalities. Monetizing the value of avoided total premature mortalities, we find that a 50%-blended sustainable alternative jet fuel results in a 19% decrease in PM2.5 damages per ton of fuel burned and a 2% decrease in total damages per ton of fuel burned as compared to damages from traditional jet fuel. We also quantify health impacts by state and find California to be the most impacted by LTO emissions. We find that LTO-attributable PM2.5 and NO2 premature mortalities increase by 10% and 80%, respectively from 2011 to 2016 and that NO2-attributable premature mortalities are responsible for 91% of total LTO-attributable premature mortalities in both 2011 and 2016. And since we find LTO-attributable NO2 to be unaffected by the implementation of sustainable alternative jet fuels, additional approaches focused on NOX reductions in the combustor are needed to mitigate the air quality-related health impacts from LTO emissions.