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Modeling and elucidation the effects of iron deposits on chlorine decay and trihalomethane formation in drinking water distribution system
Water Research  (IF11.236),  Pub Date : 2021-10-26, DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117804
Pei Hua, Quan Gao, Zhenyu Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Keila Roberta Ferreira de Oliveira, Dhiogo Okumoto Macedo

Iron deposits stimulate chlorine consumption and trihalomethane (THM) formation in drinking water distribution systems through distinct mechanisms. In this study, a second-order chlorine decay model with a variable reaction-rate coefficient was developed to quantitatively evaluate the influences of iron deposits on chlorine reactions by considering the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the type and dosages of deposits, as well as the initial chlorine concentrations. Based on a reliable prediction of residual chlorine, the concept that THM formation had a linear relationship with chlorine consumption was further validated by chlorination of DOM in the presence of iron deposits. Due to the catalysis influences, the reactivity of DOM towards chlorine decay or THM formation was accelerated. Although iron deposits activated the reactivity of DOM with bromine and chlorine, THM slightly shifted toward chlorinated species. Due to the adsorption influences, the maximum chlorine demand increased with the increasing deposit dosages whereas the extent of enhancement mainly relied on the DOM properties. Low-molecular-weight DOM with a hydrophilic characteristic was prone to be elevated by iron deposits. Based on the model simulation, approximately 20% of chlorine consumption and 37% of THM formation were contributed by deposits after 168 h reaction. The data provided herein emphasize the role of iron deposits in chlorine consumption and THM formation, which assist the water quality management in drinking water distribution systems.