Gallium (Ga) is widely used in high-tech industries and is an emerging contaminant in the environment. This study aimed to determine Ga speciation in soils and Ga accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) grown in three Ga-contaminated soils. The results showed that, among the soils, the acidic soil with a coarse texture had the highest soil Ga availability, which enhanced Ga uptake by rice roots. The Ga K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure and sequential extraction results of the soils showed that the predominant species of Ga associated with iron hydroxides transformed to Ga(OH)3 precipitates, and the residue fraction increased with rice-growing time, resulting in lower Ga uptake by rice roots in the second half period of rice cultivation. A large fraction of Ga was accumulated in the rice roots, with only a small portion of Ga was transferred to the shoots and then to the rice grains. This study revealed that Ga speciation in soil-rice plant systems varied during rice cultivation and determined soil Ga availability to rice plants. Gallium accumulated in rice grains is distributed homogenously in the endosperm of the grains, suggesting a potential risk to public health via the intake of rice grains harvested from Ga-contaminated paddy fields.