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Self-disorders and psychopathology: a systematic review
The Lancet Psychiatry  (IF27.083),  Pub Date : 2021-10-21, DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(21)00097-3
Mads Gram Henriksen, Andrea Raballo, Julie Nordgaard

In foundational texts on schizophrenia, the mental disorder was constitutively linked to a specific disintegration of subjectivity (often termed a self-disorder). Apart from Scharfetter's work on ego-pathology, research on self-disorders generally faded into oblivion, and self-disorders were only rediscovered as notable psychopathological features of the schizophrenia spectrum nearly two decades ago. Subsequently, the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) scale was constructed to allow systematic assessment of non-psychotic self-disorders. This Review is the first systematic review of empirical studies on self-disorders based on the EASE or other related scales. The results consistently show that self-disorders hyper-aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders but not in other mental disorders; that self-disorders are found in individuals at a clinical risk of developing psychosis; that self-disorders show a high degree of temporal stability; that self-disorders predict the later development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders; and that self-disorders correlate with the canonical dimensions of the psychopathology of schizophrenia, impaired social functioning, and suicidality. Issues with the methods of the reviewed literature are critically discussed and the role of self-disorders in clinical psychiatry and future research is outlined.