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A simple thermal-detoxified method for castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cake, and its potential nutraceutical properties
Industrial Crops and Products  (IF5.645),  Pub Date : 2021-10-18, DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.114151
Mayra Denise Herrera, Rafael Jiménez-Ocampo, Rigoberto Rosales-Serna, Jorge Alberto Rodríguez-González, Juan Luis Santos-De la Cruz, Raquel Karina Cruz-Bravo, Pablo Alvarado-Aguilar, Claudia Ivette Gamboa-Gómez, Fernando Guerrero-Romero

In order to search viable alternatives for detoxifying the castor bean toxic waste, and harnessing for diverse applications, the objective of this study was evaluate the thermal-detoxified method and determinate the castor bean cake nutraceutical potential properties. Autoclaving (15 psi, 15 min, 121 ° C) process in presence of humidity (30 %) was performed as detoxified method. Presence of ricin was evaluated using ELISA and the castor bean cake lethal dose (LD50) determinate by acute toxicity assay in male Wistar rats. Additionally, the castor bean cake chemical and phytochemical characterization was evaluated and its nutraceutical potential determinate throughout antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects. The results showed that after the thermal-detoxified treatment, ricin concentration decreased over 99 %, and the castor bean cake LD50 was greater than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. After detoxified process, protein content increases 17.5 % and lipids decreases 10 %. In addition, a greater content of insoluble fraction (13 %) and 2.6-fold times more of resistant starch, as compared to un-detoxified cake, was observed. Furthermore, in comparison with untreated cake, thermal process led to an upsurge of gallic acid (3.5-fold times) and 4-O- caffeoylquinic acid (8.8-fold times). About nutraceutical potential properties, a lower antioxidant capacity and a hypoglycemic effect, in comparison with the control, were observed. The thermal-detoxified method eliminates ricin of castor bean cake, providing to be a potential source of proteins, lipids, fiber, and bioactive compounds as well as exhibiting antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects.