Heavy metal pollution generated by urban and industrial activities has become a major global concern due to its high toxicity, minimal biodegradability, and persistence in the food chain. These are the severe pollutants that have the potential to harm humans and the environment as a whole. Mercury, chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel are the most often discharged hazardous heavy metals. Nanocellulose, reminiscent of many other sustainable nanostructured materials, is gaining popularity for application in bioremediation technologies owing to its many unique features and potentials. The adsorption of heavy metals from wastewaters is greatly improved when cellulose dimension is reduced to nanometric levels. For instance, the adsorption efficiency of Cr3+ and Cr6+ is found to be 42.02% and 5.79% respectively using microcellulose, while nanocellulose adsorbed 62.40% of Cr3+ ions and 5.98% of Cr6+ ions from contaminated water. These nanomaterials are promising in terms of their ease and low cost of regeneration. This review addresses the relevance of nanocellulose as biosorbent, scaffold, and membrane in various heavy metal bioremediation, as well as provides insights into the challenges, future prospects, and updates. The methods of designing better nanocellulose biosorbents to improve adsorption efficiency according to contaminant types are focused.