Human gut microbiota plays a crucial role in providing protective responses against pathogens, particularly by regulating immune system homeostasis. There is a reciprocal interaction between the gut and lung microbiota, called the gut-lung axis (GLA). Any alteration in the gut microbiota or their metabolites can cause immune dysregulation, which can impair the antiviral activity of the immune system against respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2.
This narrative review mainly outlines emerging data on the mechanisms underlying the interactions between the immune system and intestinal microbial dysbiosis, which is caused by an imbalance in the levels of essential metabolites. The authors will also discuss the role of probiotics in restoring the balance of the gut microbiota and modulation of cytokine storm.
Microbiota-derived signals regulate the immune system and protect different tissues during severe viral respiratory infections. The GLA’s equilibration could help manage the mortality and morbidity rates associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.