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Endocrine manifestations and new developments in mitochondrial disease
Endocrine Reviews  (IF19.871),  Pub Date : 2021-10-13, DOI: 10.1210/endrev/bnab036
Ng Y, Lim A, Panagiotou G, et al.

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of common inherited diseases causing disruption of oxidative phosphorylation. Some patients with mitochondrial disease have endocrine manifestations, with diabetes being predominant but also include hypogonadism, hypoadrenalism and hypoparathyroidism. There have been major developments in mitochondrial disease over the last decade that have major implications for all patients. The collection of large cohorts of patients has better defined the phenotype of mitochondrial diseases and the majority of patients with endocrine abnormalities have involvement of several other systems. This means that patients with mitochondrial disease and endocrine manifestations need specialist follow up because some of the other manifestations, such as stroke-like episodes and cardiomyopathy, are potentially life threatening. Also, the development and follow up of large cohorts of patients means that there are clinical guidelines for the management of patients with mitochondrial disease. There is also considerable research activity to identify novel therapies for the treatment of mitochondrial disease. The revolution in genetics, with the introduction of next generation sequencing, has made genetic testing more available and establishing a precise genetic diagnosis is important since it will affect the risk for involvement for different organ systems. Establishing a genetic diagnosis is also crucial since there are important reproductive options have been developed which will prevent the transmission of mitochondrial disease due to mitochondrial DNA variants to the next generation.