Photocatalysis has been invariably considered as a promising and ideal technology to achieve clean energy conversion, and photoinduced selective oxidation reactions in organic synthesis have been emerging as one of the fastest growing fields. Owing to the tunable structures and tailorable functionalities, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have become a powerful platform to construct efficient photocatalyst systems with diverse and even incompatible functionalities. In this review, strategies for boosting photoactivity of MOFs-based materials and advanced characterization techniques for investigating reaction mechanism are systematically summarized first. The recent research progresses in MOFs-involved photocatalytic selective oxidation reactions are subsequently discussed on the basis of different reaction types, in which the feasibility and effectiveness of above strategies are exemplified by catalytic results in each reaction. More importantly, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and corresponding regulation strategy in each oxidation reactions are also summarized in order to provide a general protocol for other researchers to design matchable MOFs-based photocatalysts towards specific oxidation reaction for desired conversion and selectivity. In the end, a brief conclusion and several perspectives on current challenges and future development of MOFs-based photocatalysts in this burgeoning research area are proposed. We hope this reaction-type-oriented review can afford in-depth understanding and significant inspirations toward photocatalytic selective oxidation reactions over MOFs-based materials.