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Assessing the rate of crustal extension by 2D sequential restoration analysis: A case study from the active portion of the Malta Escarpment
Basin Research  (IF4.308),  Pub Date : 2021-10-10, DOI: 10.1111/bre.12621
Salvatore Gambino, Giovanni Barreca, Felix Gross, Carmelo Monaco, Marc-André Gutscher, G. Ian Alsop

Tectono-stratigraphic interpretation and sequential restoration modelling was performed over two high-resolution seismic profiles crossing the Western Ionian Basin of southern Italy. This analysis was undertaken in order to provide greater insights and a more reliable assessment of the deformation rate affecting the area. Offshore seismic profiling illuminates the sub-seafloor setting where a belt of active normal faults slice across the foot of the Malta Escarpment, a regional-scale structural boundary inherited from the Permo-Triassic palaeotectonic setting. A sequential restoration workflow was established to back-deform the entire investigated sector with the primary aim of analysing the deformation history of the three major normal faults affecting the area. Restoration of the tectono-stratigraphic model reveals how deformation rates evolved through time. In the early stage, the studied area experienced a significant deformation with the horizontal component prevailing over the vertical element. In this context, the three major faults contribute to only one third of the total deformation. The overall throw and extension then notably reduced through time towards the present day and, since the middle Pliocene, ongoing crustal deformation is accommodated almost entirely by the three major normal faults. Unloading and decompaction indicate that when compared to the unrestored seismic sections, a revision and a reduction of roughly one third of the vertical displacement of the faults offset is required. This analysis ultimately allows us to better understand the seismic potential of the region.