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Analysis of developmental imprinting dynamics in primates using SNP-free methods to identify imprinting defects in cloned placenta
Developmental Cell  (IF12.27),  Pub Date : 2021-10-06, DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2021.09.012
Chu Chu, Wenhao Zhang, Yu Kang, Chenyang Si, Weizhi Ji, Yuyu Niu, Yi Zhang

Our knowledge of genomic imprinting in primates is lagging behind that of mice largely because of the difficulties of allelic analyses in outbred animals. To understand imprinting dynamics in primates, we profiled transcriptomes, DNA methylomes, and H3K27me3 in uniparental monkey embryos. We further developed single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-free methods, TARSII and CARSII, to identify germline differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in somatic tissues. Our comprehensive analyses showed that allelic DNA methylation, but not H3K27me3, is a major mark that correlates with paternal-biasedly expressed genes (PEGs) in uniparental monkey embryos. Interestingly, primate germline DMRs are different from PEG-associated DMRs in early embryos and are enriched in placenta. Strikingly, most placenta-specific germline DMRs are lost in placenta of cloned monkeys. Collectively, our study establishes SNP-free germline DMR identification methods, defines developmental imprinting dynamics in primates, and demonstrates imprinting defects in cloned monkey placenta, which provides important clues for improving primate cloning.