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Alpelisib administration reduced lymphatic malformations in a mouse model and in patients
Science Translational Medicine  (IF17.956),  Pub Date : 2021-10-06, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abg0809
Florence Delestre, Quitterie Venot, Charles Bayard, Antoine Fraissenon, Sophia Ladraa, Clément Hoguin, Célia Chapelle, Junna Yamaguchi, Rubina Cassaca, Lola Zerbib, Sato Magassa, Gabriel Morin, Vahid Asnafi, Patrick Villarese, Sophie Kaltenbach, Sylvie Fraitag, Jean-Paul Duong, Christine Broissand, Olivia Boccara, Véronique Soupre, Bernard Bonnotte, Caroline Chopinet, Tristan Mirault, Christophe Legendre, Laurent Guibaud, Guillaume Canaud

Lymphatic cystic malformations are rare genetic disorders mainly due to somatic gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CA gene. These anomalies are frequently associated with pain, inflammatory flares, esthetic deformities, and, in severe forms, life-threatening conditions. There is no approved medical therapy for patients with lymphatic malformations. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed a genetic mouse model of PIK3CA-related lymphatic malformations that recapitulates human disease. Using this model, we demonstrated the efficacy of alpelisib, an approved pharmacological inhibitor of PIK3CA in oncology, in preventing lymphatic malformation occurrence, improving lymphatic anomalies, and extending survival. On the basis of these results, we treated six patients with alpelisib, including three children, displaying severe PIK3CA-related lymphatic malformations. Patients were already unsuccessfully treated with rapamycin, percutaneous sclerotherapies, and debulking surgical procedures. We assessed the volume of lymphatic malformations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each patient. Alpelisib administration was associated with improvements in the six patients. Previously intractable vascular malformations shrank, and pain and inflammatory flares were attenuated. MRI showed a decrease of 48% in the median volume of lymphatic malformations over 6 months on alpelisib. During the study, two patients developed adverse events potentially related to alpelisib, including grade 1 mucositis and diarrhea. In conclusion, this study supports PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PIK3CA-related lymphatic anomalies.