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The oxygen vacancy migration and its lattice structural origin in A-site non-stoichiometric bismuth sodium titanate perovskites
Journal of Materiomics  (IF6.425),  Pub Date : 2021-10-01, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmat.2021.09.008
Jing Shi, Xiao Liu, Fangyuan Zhu, Wenchao Tian, Yuanhua Xia, Tangyuan Li, Rongrong Rao, Tao Zhang, Laijun Liu

Off-stoichiometry of perovskite structural Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) ferroelectrics can give rise to considerable oxide-ion conductivity. The inherent structural characteristics are urgent to be resolved due to its particular sensitivity of the conduction mechanism to the nominal composition and synthesis process. Herein, a thorough study of the temperature-dependent neutron, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum is carried out on a series of equivalently substituted A-site deficient non-stoichiometric and pristine BNT. Phase transition and defect association are systemically investigated in these dominated rhombohedral phases at room temperature, associated with well saturated ferroelectric states. Significant structural evolution identified by Rietveld refinements and the origin of the electrical performance are clarified at elevated temperatures, focusing on the subtle distortions of ionic displacements, oxygen octahedral tilts and local chemical environments for oxygen vacancies. The ion migration ability mediated by oxygen vacancies that are not energetically favorable in BNT mainly depends on the external substitutional disorder, and is strongly affected by the dopant concentration. Together with the lone pair substitution concept, superior oxide ionic conductivity is achieved, and an alternative strategy is provided in designing BNT based oxide ion conductors.