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A conserved scaffold with heterogeneous metal ion binding site: the multifaceted example of HD-GYP proteins
Coordination Chemistry Reviews  (IF22.315),  Pub Date : 2021-09-29, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2021.214228
Francesca Cutruzzolà, Alessandro Paiardini, Chiara Scribani Rossi, Sharon Spizzichino, Alessio Paone, Giorgio Giardina, Serena Rinaldo

The control of the intracellular level of cyclic dinucleotides is a major strategy to transduce external signals into a cellular response, particularly in bacteria. The HD-GYP metalloproteins, a subgroup of the larger family of histidine-aspartate (HD) hydrolases, can catalyze the cleavage of the phosphodiester bond(s) of cyclic dinucleotides. The HD signature is involved in metal binding in the active site, whereas the GYP motif is likely involved in recognition and interaction with other partners. The most representative substrate of HD-GYPs is the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a global regulator of bacterial biofilm, motility, and virulence. Hydrolysis of c-di-GMP into the linear form pGpG or into the monomeric guanosine derivative (GMP) reprograms the cellular phenotype, usually promoting biofilm dispersion and virulence. Recent data indicate that members of HD-GYP group can also hydrolyze the bacterial cyclic diGMP-AMP (cGAMP) dinucleotide or act as possible sensors of pGpG.

The HD-GYP diversity is not limited to substrate recognition: the most striking trait is the extraordinary heterogeneity of the active sites characterized so far, showing different metals ions assisting catalysis, both in terms of their nature and number. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the structural, functional, and kinetic properties of the bacterial HD-GYP metalloproteins.