Multidrug resistance is a major threat to global elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We performed phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing for 309 isolates from 342 consecutive patients who were given a diagnosis of TB in Yangon, Myanmar, during July 2016‒June 2018. We identified isolates by using the GeneXpert platform to evaluate drug-resistance profiles. A total of 191 (62%) of 309 isolates had rifampin resistance; 168 (88%) of these rifampin-resistant isolates were not genomically related, indicating the repeated emergence of resistance in the population, rather than extensive local transmission. We did not detect resistance mutations to new oral drugs, including bedaquiline and pretomanid. The current GeneXpert MTB/RIF system needs to be modified by using the newly launched Xpert MTB/XDR cartridge or line-probe assay. Introducing new oral drugs to replace those currently used in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant TB will also be useful for treating TB in Myanmar.